Pork: Good or Bad? Myths or Facts?

We stirred up some controversy recently when we included pork on our list of energy-boosting foods. Some of you questioned whether it was healthy or safe to eat. So you can make your own decision, we thought we’d share pork’s nutrition facts. Is it really the “other white meat”?

Pork 1Bacon is the oxygen of the food world. It’s amazing, you can’t get enough of it and anyone too stupid to love it deserves to die anyway. You love bacon, and all of its delicious, porky cousins. But you’d better make sure that pork is well done, right? You’ve got to fire up the grill and get that pig cooking. Anything less than well done and you’ll get worms all up in your colon and stomach, and eventually your brain and your thoughts (probably).

That’s why restaurants prepare pork chops the way they want, without even giving you any options. You can tell a waiter how rare you want a cheeseburger, but if you order pork chops, they’re not going to let you decide if you want them rare or medium, because any choice that isn’t “well done” just means “full of worms.”

The Reality:

Full of bullshit, is more like it. Due to a fear of trichinosis (a parasitic disease caused by eating raw or undercooked pork), people have, for years, made sure that they don’t eat pork unless it’s been cooked to a well-done state. By the way, that fear was completely legit, because trichinosis is a worm that slithers menacingly around in an animal’s (or some lucky human’s) digestive system. After that, it burrows its way into the flesh and the muscles. In other words, it’s a terrifying hellbeast.

While there is a historical basis for caution regarding trichinosis, it’s no longer a threat that should concern U.S. pork consumers today. In fact, the odds of getting trichinosis from eating pork sold at retail stores is only 1 in 154 million.* Why? Because, the parasite responsible for this disease has been almost completely eliminated from modern pork production. That’s thanks to the American farmers’ adherence to strict production practices and the federal government’s ongoing monitoring programs of farms and processing facilities.

Pork Myth #1
All Pork is Created Equal.

The Truth…

A pig raised in a happy and healthy environment is going to yield delicious, nutritious meat – rich in good fats and other nutrients. On the other hand, a pig that’s raised in a place with limited mobility, unsanitary conditions and inadequate food options will produce meat that may taste good, but it will not benefit your health.

Factory raised pork is a bad choice for so many reasons, but nutritionally speaking, factory pork is higher omega-6 fatty acids – specifically arachidonic acid – which the average modern eater already consumes in too high a proportion to other fatty acids. That’s because the diet of factory raised pigs mostly consists of GMO corn and other grains, not the scraps, slop and grasses that a pastured pig is allowed to forage for naturally.

On top of their crappy diet, many factory pigs have a diet supplemented with synthetic vitamins that won’t be properly absorbed, leaving the pigs overfed and malnourished.

Properly raised pigs root around outdoors in the sunshine, and as a result their fat is one of the richest sources of vitamin D. On the other hand, conventional pork pigs don’t spend time outdoors, and their close quarters also mean they’re at a higher risk of contracting diseases. Potential for disease means your future pork will be injected with hormones and antibiotics necessary to keep them alive. (source)

Bottom line: The way pigs are raised greatly determines the nutritional status of the resulting pork.

Pork Myth #2
Pigs are filthy and toxic.

Pigs don’t sweat and that means they can’t detox. Plus they roll around in their own waste. Nasty.

The Truth

It’s a lesser known fact that pigs don’t have sweat glands. Lots of people think this makes a pig more prone to holding in toxins but that simply isn’t true. Pigs filter out toxins through their liver and kidneys just like humans.

Because they don’t have the sweat glands and can’t pant like dogs do, they need a different way to stay cool. Mud or water puddles help the pigs keep their body temperature down. Plus the mud has an added benefit of protecting their skin from getting sunburned or bitten by insects. (source)

Does this mean pigs are rolling around in their own pee and poo? In this great post, Food Renegade explains that if you take the time to observe pigs, you will find that “like us, they’re conscientious. They won’t wallow in their own excrement. And if you give them water, they will bathe.”

Again, this comes back to the pigs’ living conditions. The ones that are given separate areas for waste and mud bathing and given water to rinse off in will be healthier. Pastured pigs raised by responsible farmers fall into this category.

1) Pigs do have some sweat glands, just not very many.

2) Pigs can cool themselves by panting just like dogs..

My great uncle had about 400 pigs out in pasture at our family farm in Michigan. Their preference is to use a good wallow and shade for cooling off but when they must they’ll pant to cool themselves. They also enjoy ice and snow for cooling.

Pig in fieldes

Pork Myth #3
Pigs have parasites that cause disease.

All pigs have tape worms and eating pork will give you trichinosis.

The Truth

Sure, some parasites are bad, and the thought of wriggly worms inside us can be quite disgusting. To put this into perspective though, parasites are a normal, natural part of life that include all of the tiny bacteria and yeast that – in balance – are essential to health.

In her Ode to Pork, Food Renegade explains, “Very few of the parasites that infect pigs are actually dangerous to humans, and the ones that are bad are radically minimized” by raising the pigs and preparing the pork properly.

Pigs should be raised outdoors, in the sunshine, fed a normal, omnivorous foraging diet to minimize the likelihood of harmful parasites in the first place.

Secondly, pork should always be prepared by first marinating the meat in an acidic medium before cooking.

Historic traditions for preparing pork meat throughout the world included smoking, salt-curing or marinating the meat in something acidic for a period of time before cooking. Usually for 24 hours. A lot of people have abandoned that practice for faster, easier meals and because we have refrigeration to keep meat fresh longer. Thoroughly cooking pork will also eliminate the risk of trichinosis by killing any parasites. Still, I would recommend adhering to traditional preparation whenever possible as one preliminary study shows that these practices also negate blood clotting and inflammation associated with pork consumption.

Pork Myth #4
Pork causes cancer.

Eating pork will give you cancer, and there are studies to prove it.

The Truth

Studies have shown that there are incidences of some pork being linked to cancer. In particular at Harvard University researchers found “that individuals eating beef, pork, or lamb daily have approximately three times the colon cancer risk, compared to people who generally avoid these products.” (source) I find this China-Study-esque data perplexing because the studies fail to report the sources of the meat consumed, how it was prepared, or what else the subjects were eating (say deep fried doughnuts and coca cola?).

Assuming the participant were eating conventional meat, it’s important to note that factory raised pigs will be at greater risk of passing on greater levels of arachidonic acid in the form of the fatty Omega-6. In smaller quantities this acid is essential to muscle growth but in large quantities it can contribute to heart disease.

A pasture-raised pig will not be injected with hormones, antibiotics or other drugs so these potential cancer causing agents won’t be passed on to you. In fact, the meat from a healthy raised pasture pig actually contains more conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), a fat that might actually fight against cancer. According to Eat Wild, “CLA is a newly discovered good fat called “conjugated linoleic acid” that may be a potent cancer fighter. In animal studies, very small amounts of CLA have blocked all three stages of cancer: 1) initiation, 2) promotion, and 3) metastasis.”

Pork Myth #5

Pork is loaded with heart-damaging fat.

Pork is high in saturated fat that will give you heart disease and kill you.

The Truth

As we discussed above, factory pork will be high in omega-6 fatty acids which is linked to heart disease and other health problems when consumed out of proportion from other fatty acids.

Thankfully, pastured pork is a great source of essential, healthy saturated fat, which, despite common modern beliefs, is actually essential to health.

Have you read this great article by the heart surgeon who speaks out on what really causes heart disease? Turns out butter and bacon are not to blame after all.

Diets high in saturated fat actually have been shown increase HDL, the “good” cholesterol and not affect LDL, the “bad” cholesterol (Journal of American College of Nutrition, 2004). Cholesterol does not clog arteries, and is essential for many functions in the body, including hormone production and regulation, proper digestion, and immune health. A fairly recent study actually shows that lowering cholesterol has no affect on plaque build-up in the arteries (American Journal of Cardiology, 2003).

According to Dr. Mercola, “Your body cannot function without saturated fats. Saturated fats are needed for the proper function of your: cell membranes, heart, bones (to assimilate calcium), liver, lungs, hormones, immune system, satiety (reducing hunger), and genetic regulation.”

Yay, pork belly!

Pork Myth #6
Pork is loaded with nitrates and nitrites.

Nitrates and nitrites are a leading cause of disease, and pork products are loaded with them.

The Truth

Nitrates and nitrites are words many people will associate with bacon, processed meat, and hot dogs. The fact is that more nitrites come from vegetables than you might think.

Studies have been conducted over recent years showing that, not only do nitrites live in our own saliva but that there may even be benefits to ingesting them for treating certain heart related diseases. That said, not all nitrates are created equally, and meats cured with sodium nitrate (a.k.a.) salt peter, sodium nitrite, or mono-sodium glutamate (MSG) should be avoided because they turn into a carcinogen in the body.

Pork products labeled as ‘uncured’ are often still preserved according to traditional means, so they are preferred even though they will contain naturally occurring nitrates. You can read more about how to properly prepare pork in this Definitive Guide to Pork.
One last thing…

I subscribe to the 80/20 principal which means I aim to follow the best practices of healthy living 80% of the time. My family eats mostly home cooked meals. During the remaining 20% I still try to eat healthy but I try to lighten up and not be so darn fussy. After all, health is not just what we put in our bodies, but also our psycho-emotional state as well. Food obsession is both exhausting and stressful.
Is pork bad for you?

As you can see, the answer to this question depends on a few key points. So whether or not you choose to eat pork, here’s what you need to remember:

Know your farmer and buy pork from properly raised pigs.
Prepare your pork properly using traditional methods whenever possible (marinated or traditionally pickled or cured).
Enjoy your bacon (ham and pork chops). Because to do otherwise is just a darn shame.

*******The thing is, that fear was legit many, many years ago. Today, due to modern pork processing standards, cases of trichinosis in the U.S. have been reduced to about 11 each year, and most of those cases weren’t even from pork — they were from the consumption of wild game. You could go to a restaurant and order pork chops medium rare and eat them and totally not die. You wouldn’t just be safe from worms, you’d be entering some brand new pork territory, as most people have only ever had pork after it’s been thoroughly cooked, thus robbing it of all its flavor. Imagine it. Juicy, warm, moist pork chops sitting on your plate, melting in your mouth, and no worms to be found for miles and miles.********

Trimming the Fat for the healthy diet.

If you’re looking for the healthiest pork options, you want lean cuts — tenderloin, loin chops and sirloin roast. Bacon and other fatty cuts are very high in artery-clogging saturated fat and cholesterol and not for everyday eating. Baked ham and lunch meat fall somewhere in the middle when it comes to fat and calories. Just like with other meats, pork is safe when cooked to the proper internal temperature (it’s 160F for pork).

Some folks are conscientious of the environmental impact of meats they eat. If that’s you, look for local and free-range purveyors of pork products — just like you would for chicken and beef. Local or free-range products may have a higher price tag, but you can offset the cost in other ways like committing to a meatless day once a week.

Nutrition Facts
Lean cuts of pork are high in protein, naturally low in salt,  low in fat and have more B-vitamins (thiamin, niacin, B6 and B12) than many other types of meat. These vitamins play a role in a variety of body functions, including metabolism and energy production (that’s why we had it on our “energizing foods” list). For some perspective, let’s compare 3 ounces of cooked pork tenderloin to the same amount of cooked chicken breast — as you’ll see, they aren’t all that different:

Pork Tenderloin
Calories: 96 calories
Total Fat: 3 grams
Saturated Fat: 1 grams
Cholesterol: 48 milligrams
Protein: 18 grams
Iron 6%
Thiamin 45%
Niacin 30%
B6 27%
B12 6%

Pork also contains healthy doses of zinc and selenium.

Chicken Breast
Calories: 142 calories
Total Fat: 3 grams
Saturated Fat: 1 grams
Cholesterol: 73 milligrams
Protein: 27 grams
Iron 5%
Thiamin 4%
Niacin 59%
B6 26%
B12 5%

Chicken is also a good source of selenium.

Of course, what you choose to eat is always a personal decision.

Comments

Andrea says:
September 29, 2014 at 12:33 pm

If it makes you feel any better, free range chickens are also scavengers. They eat insects, worms, and even baby mice. I have even seen mine eat a dead snake. Many fish are also scavengers. I don’t see what the big issue with scavengers is.

I think that your theory on omnivores and carnivores eating only herbivores is incorrect. Chickens and turkeys will eat anything…. including each other, mice, toads, anything. I’ve seen it. Nobody considers them ‘unclean’. Many fish also eat other living animals along with plants. Why are they not unclean and to be avoided. It’s unfortunate that you’ve cut an entirely good, healthy option out of your diet because of someone’s “guess what I saw” story. Hawks, eagles etc. will eat a cat as soon as a rabbit. Coyotes will eat dogs, cats, anything they can kill. I realize that in the US it’s not normal for humans to eat carnivores, but there are countries in the world where eating dog and cat are not uncommon at all. ‘We’ also think it’s weird to eat horse… why – they are herbivores. Talk about grass-fed. I don’t expect to see a movement here anytime soon to start eating horse, but I would hope that people would educate themselves on the differences in pork and realize that it is not pork that is ‘bad’, it’s what humans feed them and how they raise them that should make us think twice about where our bacon comes from. While we’re at it, we should take a close look at the chicken that is factory farmed also. I’m guessing if you saw those conditions you’d cut chicken out in no time flat.

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